The history of Botswana is comparable to other African countries in the sense that their history can be divided into three periods, namely, before European occupation, European occupation and independence. However, the history of Botswana and its people can be considered unique because the period of their independence has been characterized by both political and economic stability.
Before European occupation
The major ethnic group in Botswana is called the 'Tswana,' from which the term Botswana is derived. Before the Europeans came to Africa, the people in Botswana were mostly herders and farmers that were under tribal rule. Right before the Europeans came, there were hostilities that broke out between the inhabitants of Botswana and other tribes from other places, which included hostilities between Boers and the tribes of Botswana.
By 1885, the hostilities became worse. To end the hostilities, Khama III, who was then the leader of Botswana, asked the British Government for assistance by putting the northern territory (Bechuanaland) under its protection. This northern part eventually became Botswana, and the southern part became part of South Africa.
When Britain formed the Union of South Africa, the Bechuanaland protectorate was not included together with Lesotho and Swaziland. The British made a provision that these areas would later be incorporated in the Union, but this never occurred. Two of the major events that hindered this incorporation were the institutionalization of apartheid in South Africa in 1948 and the eventual withdrawal of South Africa from the Commonwealth in 1961. While all these were happening, British authorities expanded. In the 1920s, tribal governments evolved in Botswana through the establishment of two advisory councils represented by Africans and Europeans. In 1934, tribal rules and powers were formally established, which led to the establishment of a European-African council in 1951. In 1961, a constitution was drafted, and it established a consultative legislative council in the country.